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Prophet Muhammad: A Brief Biography

The Prophet (SAWS) described his five names: Muhammad, Ahmad, Maahee, Haashir and Aaqib

Thursday November 7, 2019 12:08 PM, Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi, ummid.com

Biography of Prophet Muhammad

Blessed Birth: Allah’s last and final Messenger, Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was born on Monday 12th Rabiu al-Awwal, by some accounts on 09th Rabiu al-Awwal, in the year of the Elephant corresponding 20th April 571 AC to Abdullah son of Abdul Muttalib and Aminah daughter of Wahab son of Abdu Manaaf in Makkah, the city where holy Ka’bah is situated.

Golden Lineage of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS): The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim bin Abd Munaaf bin Qusei bin Kilaab bin Murrah bin Ka’ab bin Lawei bin Ghalib bin Fehr bin Malik bin Nadhr bin Kinanah bin Khuzaimah bin Mudrakah bin Ilyas bin Mudhar bin Nazaar bin Ma’add bin Adnan. (Seerate Mustafa 1/22)

Father’s Death: The father, Abdullah died before the Prophet’s blessed birth.

Blessed Names: On seventh day of his birth, Abdul Muttalib performed his Aqiqah and invited all the members of the Qureish. Abdul Muttalib gave him unique name “Muhammad”; while his mother named him “Ahmad”. Both the names were unique traditionally for the peoples of the Qureish as such names were not given to anyone before by their elders. (Seerate Mustafa 1/61-62)

Five Names: According to one narration in Sahih Bukhari, the Prophet (SAWS) described his five names: Muhammad, Ahmad, Maahee, Haashir and Aaqib. (Seerate Mustafa 1/66)

Kunniyah: Abul Qasim and Abu Ibrahim (SAWS). (Seerate Mustafa 1/67)

Nursing: Firstly the Prophet (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was breastfed by his mother for 3/4 days. For few days more, he (SAWS) was also breastfed by Thuweibiyah, the girl-slave of his uncle Abu Lahab, who was set free by Abu Lahab as soon as she informed him about the blessed birth of Muhammad (SAWS). (Seerate Mustafa 1/68)

According to the Arab custom, the prominent Arab used to send their newly born babies to the rural area during the breastfeeding period, so that they will be brought up in clean envirounment and they will have command over eloquent language. Muhammad (SAWS), therefore, was also taken by Halimah Sa’adiyah (RA), a blessed lady from “Bnu Sa’ad Tribe” for upbringing and breastfeeding. (Seerate Mustafa 1/69)

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When the Prophet (SAWS) turned two years, Halimah Sa’adiyah weaned him from breastfeeding and brought him (SAWS) back to his mother, Aaminah. But she remembered the blessing which she was bestowed upon because of him (SAWS), so she requested to his mother to give him back for further upbringing for little longer. She was given back. After some months, he started going with his foster brothers for grazing the goats. (Seerate Mustafa 1/72)

Shaqqus Sadr: When he (SAWS) was four years old still in Banu Sa’ad Tribe, once he went for grazing the goats with his foster brother. Two angels, Jabraeel and Mikaeel (AS) dressed in white clothes descended in form of the human beings and caught him. They split his chest open, took out the heart, cleaned it, put it back at its place and stitched it. (Seerate Mustafa 1/72)

Second Shaqqus Sadr: The second time Shaqqus Sadr took place when he (SAWS) had turned 10. The third time Shaqqus Sadr took place at the time of the Prophethood when he was 40 years old. Fourth Shaqqus Sadr took place at the time of Miraaj; (while he was 51 years old.) (Seerate Mustafa 1/75-76)

Mother’s Demise: Because of the incident of Shaqqus Sadr, Halimah and her husband got frightened and hastily brought him back to his mother. Now he (SAWS) was in the care of his beloved mother. When he (SAWS) was 6 years old, his mother took him to Madinah to visit the relatives. His mother died, while coming back from Madinah at a place called “Abwa”. (Seerate Mustafa 1/83)

In Charge of Grandfather: The doubly orphaned Muhammad (SAWS) was put under the charge of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib who took care of him. After two years, Abdul Muttalib died. (Seerate Mustafa 1/84)

In Charge of Uncle Abu Taalib: When he was just 8 years old, he was in charge of his uncle Abu Talib as Abdul Muttalib confided to his son Abu Talib the charge of the little double orphan on his deathbed. (Seerate Mustafa 1/84)

First Journey to Syria: When the Prophet (SAWS) was 12 years old, he started his journey to Syria with his uncle Abu Talib. When they reached nearby Busra, they met a Christian Priest, Jarjees, who informed the Qureish about his being Prophet in the future and suggested to not take him to Syria. Then he was returned back to Makkah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/85-87)

Participation in Harbul Fijaar: Following the Event of the Elephant, the War which took place between Qais and Qureish is called “Harbul Fijaar”. The Qureish won the battle. The Prophet (SAWS) participated in the battle on insistent of his uncles. (Seerate Mustafa 1/90)

Hilful Fuzul: On behest of Zubair bin Abdul Muttalib, the people from Bnu Hashim and Bnu Tameem gather together at the place of Abdullah bin Jada’an and they agreed upon to assist and help the oppressed ones either they are from their own people or some else. The Prophet (SAWS) participated in this agreement. This time he was 15. (Seerate Mustafa 1/91)

Prophet's Mosque Madina

As the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) used to go for grazing goats when he was in Banu Sa’ad tribe in his childhood, in the same way he also grazed the goat in Makkah when he was a youth. (Seerate Mustafa 1/94)

The 2nd Journey to Syria: Siyyidah Khadijah (RA) was a pious, rich and businesswoman of Arabia. When he (SAWS) turned 25, he was offered by Khadijah (RA) to go Syria for her business. Because of poor economic condition of his uncle Abu Talib, he (SAWS) accepted this offer. He went Syria with her slave Meisarh. (Seerate Mustafa 1/96-97)

Wedding with Khadijah (RA): Following the 2 months and 25-day of the Syria trip, Sayyidah Khadijah (RA), then 40, proposed the Prophet (SAWS), then 25, for marriage. After consultation with his uncle, he (SAWS) got ready. Date was fixed. On the date, the Prophet (SAWS) reached Khadijah’s home in the company of his uncles: Abu Talib, Hamzah and other elders of the family and Nikaah was performed by Abu Talib. (Seerate Mustafa 1/107-108)

Hakam (Mediator/Judge): When the Prophet (SAWS) was 35, the Qureish wanted to reconstruct the Holy Ka’abah. When the construction of the holy Ka’abah reached the level at which the Hajar-e-Aswad (Black Stone) was to be placed, a dispute erupted among the tribe of the Qureish regarding whom to grant the honour of placing the Stone back on its corner. Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah Makhzumi suggested that the first person to enter the Haram the following morning would be made Hakam (Judge) to give the final decision. They agreed upon it. The Next day in the morning, it was the Prophet (SAWS) who entered the Haram first. Then he (SAWS) was made Hakam. He told the people to put the Black Stone in his Sheet and asked the Chiefs of each tribe to lift it up to the level. Then he (SAWS) himself placed it at its place. (Seerate Mustafa 1/111-112)

In the Cave of Hiraa: When the Prophet (SAWS) turned 37-year old, he started visiting the Cave of Hiraa repeatedly and loving seclusion and loneliness to worship Allah the Almighty.

Prophethood: When the Prophet (SAWS) turned 40, once he was in the Cave of Hiraa, Allah the Almighty selected him as His Nabi (Prophet) and Rasool (Messenger) sending the Frist Revelation (Wahee). (Seerate Mustafa 1/128) The Prophet (SAWS) was blessed with Prophethood and Messenger-hood on Monday, 8th Rabiul Awwal. (Seerate Mustafa 1/138-139) Following the Prophethood, Sayyidah Khadijah (RA), Warqah bin Naufal, Ali bin Abi Talib, Zaid bin Harathah and Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/148-49)

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Because of the invitation of Siyyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA), some prominent members of Qureish, like Uthman bin Affan, Zubeir bin Awwam, Abdur Rahman bin Awf, Talha bin Obaidullah and Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/151)

2nd Year of Prophethood: He (SAWS) announced about his Prophethood secretly and almost 40 people embraced Islam. The Home of Arqam (RA), situated at mount Safaa, was selected as the Revert Center. The Muslims used to get together there as long as Sayyiduna Umar had not embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/165)

4th Year of Prophethood: For the first three years, he (SAWS) used to call the people towards Islam secretly. After 3-year, the Prophet (SAWS) announced his Prophethood openly and invited his relatives towards Islam from the mount Safaa. (Seerate Mustafa 1/165-66)

Some Personal Enemies of the Prophet (SAWS) and Muslims: Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab, Aswad, Harith bin Qeis, Waleed bin Mughirah, Umayyah bin Khalf, Uqbah bin Abi Muaeet etc. (Seerate Mustafa 1/203)

5th Year of Prophethood: When the polytheists felt that the number of the people embracing Islam is growing, they started torturing and oppressing them ruthlessly. When the torture and oppression of the polytheists of Makkah against the Muslim became unbearable, the Prophet (SAWS) suggested the newly reverted Muslims to migrate to Habsha (Ethiopia). The first time 11 males and 5 females and the 2nd time 86 males and 16 females migrated to Habsha secretly. (Seerate Mustafa 1/234-41)

6th Year of Prophethood: (Sayyiduna Hamzah and) Sayyiduna Umar (RA) embraced Islam. Then the Muslims started offering Salaah in the Holy Ka’abah openly. (Seerate Mustafa 1/251)

Masjid Nabawi

7th Year of Prophethood: While on the one hand the King of Ethiopia, Najashi rejected the demands of the Qureish’s ambassadors and gave high respect to Jafar (RA) and his friends, Hamzah and Umar (RA) embraced Islam on the other. Then the polytheists became hopeless and agreed upon to boycott the Prophet (SAWS), Banu Hashim and his Supporters socially. They were detained in the Valley of Abu Talib and had to stay 3-year there in the Valley in worst condition. (Seerate Mustafa 1/257)

10th Year of Prophethood: Social Boycott came to an end and the Muslims took the sigh of relief. (Seerate Mustafa 1/261)

The 10th Year of Prophethood is known as “Aamul Huzn”, because uncle, Abu Talib and Sayyidatuna Khadijah (RA) passed away. After their death, the Prophet (SAWS) was apparently helpless. He (SAWS), therefore, made a journey to Ta’if and presented Islam to famous three brothers: Abd Yaa Leil, Masood and Habib of Ta’if; but in return, he (SAWS) was tortured and attacked by the unfortunate folks of Ta’if until he got wounded and his shoes were full with blood. (Seerate Mustafa 1/264-67)

Miracle of Splitting the Moon: When the polytheists: Waleed bin Mughirah, Abu Jahl, Aas bin Waail etc. demanded the Prophet (SAWS) to prove his Prophethood by splitting the moon into two, if he was a Prophet. The Prophet (SAWS) did so with the help of Allah the Almighty, but they didn’t embrace Islam rather they said that he had been a magician and had played magic. (Seerate Mustafa 1/230-31)

11th Year of Prophethood: On 27th Rajab, the Prophet (SAWS) was taken on a unique tour of the Kingdom of the Universe, which is known as Miraaj. He proceeded from Masjide Haram to Masjide Aqsa. Then from Masjide Aqsa, he was taken up to the skies until he reached heavenly tree known as Sidratul Muntaha. The polytheists negated this tour; while Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) accepted it without a doubt. (Seerate Mustafa 1/279)

Islam in Yathrib (Madinah): A group of Khazraj from Yathrib (Madinah) came to Makkah in the Hajj season. The Prophet (SAWS) invited them towards Islam and recited few verses of the Glorious Qura’an in front of them. As they saw the Prophet (SAWS) recognized him and they started whispering that this is the same Prophet about whom we heard from the Jew of Madinah. Then they embraced Islam in the same gathering. They were six people (RA) who embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/319)

12th Year of Prophethood: From Yathrib, next year 12 people came to Makkah to meet the Prophet (SAWS). Five of them were those who had already embraced Islam in the previous journey and seven people were new. They embraced Islam and took pledge on the hands of the Prophet (SAWS). When they were going back to Madinah, the Prophet (SAWS) sent Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Ummu Maktoom and Mus’ab bin Umeir with them to teach the Qura’an and the Islamic rulings. (Seerate Mustafa 1/320-21)

Jumuah Salaah in Madinah: In the same year, As’ad bin Zurarah (RA) encouraged the Muslims to establish Jumuah Salah and it took place. After few days, a letter from the Prophet (SAWS) to Musab bin Umeir came, where he (SAWS) had instructed to establish Jumuah Salaah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/324)

13th Year of Prophethood: Sayyiduna Mus’ab bin Umeir came from Madinah to Makkah with a group of Muslims to perform Hajj. In this group there were 73 males and 2 females who took the pledge on the hands of the Prophet (SAWS) in Valley. This pledge is called “Beiate Aqabah Thaaniyah”. (Seerate Mustafa 1/325)

Selection of Chiefs: Following the completion of the Pledge, the Prophet (SAWS) informed them that the Prophet Musa (AS) had selected 12 Chiefs from the children of Israel; therefore he (SAWS) also selected 12 leaders and chiefs from them on behest of Jabraeel (AS) and guided them to lead and head their people. (Seerate Mustafa 1/332)

Beginning of Hijrah (Migration) and Welcome in Madinah: In the beginning, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Aleih Wa Sallam) was shown the Hijrah place, a land of date palm trees, between two mountains, the two stony tracts, in a dream. Up to the time, he (SAWS) was undecided about the place of Hijrah, until it was confirmed and the place was decided through Wahi (Revelation). Then the Prophet (SAWS) directed his followers to migrate to Madinah with the command of Allah, the Almighty. They were received and welcomed in Madinah with enthusiasm and much hospitality. (Seerate Mustafa 1/340)

The Polytheists Plot to Kill the Prophet (SAWS): The polytheists, after observing the Hijrah of the Sahabah (RA) one after another, thought that Rasulullah (SAWS) will migrate today or tomorrow as well. So, they started thinking seriously to prevent him from the Hijrah. They met in all haste. After several milder expedients had been rejected, Abu Jahl opined that he should be killed and for killing one man should be chosen out of every tribe and that each man should strike a blow at him with his sword so that responsibility of the guilt would rest equally on all tribes. The Banu Abd Manaaf was much inferior and therefore would not be able to revenge their kinsman's death. Iblis, who participated in the meeting pretending to be a Sheikh from Najd, conquered with this opinion.

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Following the meeting, Jabraeel (AS) came and informed Rasulullah (SAWS) about the polytheists’ plot. The Prophet (SAWS) informed Abu Bakr (RA) about his plan to migrate. A number of youths were selected for the bloody deed. As the night advanced, the assassins posted themselves round the house of the Prophet (SAWS). They watched all night long, waiting to murder the Prophet (SAWS) when he should leave his house at the early dawn. By some the Prophet (SAWS) had warned of the danger, and he directed Ali (RA) to lie down in his place and wrap himself up in his green clock, which he did. The Prophet (SAWS) miraculously escaped through the window and he appeared to the house of Abu Bakr (RA), unperceived by door. In the meantime, they, looking through a crevice and seeing Ali (RA), whom they mistook for Muhammad (SAWS) himself, asleep, continued watching there until morning.

When Ali (RA) arose, they found themselves deceived. The fury of the Qureish was now unbounded. The news that they would be assassins had returned unsuccessful and Muhammad (SAWS) had escaped aroused their whole energy. A prize of a hundred camels was set upon Muhammad's head. (Seerate Mustafa 1/344-49)

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Then Rasulullah (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) reached a cave on the mountain of Thaur and stayed there for three nights. Abdullah Ibn Abi Bakr who was an intelligent and sagacious youth, used to stay with them overnight. He used to leave them before daybreak so that he would be with Qureish in the morning as if he had spent the night in Makkah. He would keep in mind any plot made against them and when it became dark, he would go and inform them of it. Aamir Ibn Fuhaira, the freed slave of Abu Bakr (RA), used to bring the milch sheep (of Abu Bakr) to them a little while after nightfall in order to rest the sheep there. So they always had fresh milk at night, the milk of their sheep, and the milk which they warmed by throwing heated stones in it. Aamir Ibn Fuhaira would then call the herd away when it was still dark (before daybreak). He did the same in each of those three nights. Rasulullah (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) had hired a man from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dail from the family of Banu Abd Ibn Adi as an expert guide, and he was in alliance with the family of Al-As Ibn Wail As-Sahmi and he was in the religion of the infidels of Quraish. The Prophet (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) trusted him and gave him their two she-camels and took his promise to bring their camels to the cave of the mountain of Thaur in the morning after three nights later. And when they set out, Aamir Ibn Futhaira and the guide went along with them and the guide led them, along the seashore." (Sahihul Bukhari, Hadith: 3905)

Prophet's Mosque

When the Prophet (SAWS) was on his way to Madinah, Suraqa Ibn Ju'sham followed to get the prize of 100 camels. After approaching them, his horse stumbled and he fell down. He stood up and took out the divining arrows and drew lots as to whether he should harm them or not, and the lot which he disliked came out. Despite that he continued his plot. When he was close to them, suddenly the forelegs of his horse sank into the ground up to the knees and he fell down. The horse got up, but could hardly take out its forelegs from the ground. When it stood up straight again, its forelegs caused dust to rise up in the sky like smoke. Latter, he called upon them to feel secure. At this point, he felt that the cause of Rasulullah (SAWS) would become victorious. He informed them the plans of the Qureish concerning them. The Prophet (SAWS) said: 'Do not tell others about us.' Then Suraqa requested him to write a statement of security for him. He (SAWS) ordered Amir Ibn Fuhaira, who wrote it on a parchment. Then Rasulullah (SAWS) proceeded on his way." (Summarised from Sahihul Bukhari, Hadith: 3906)

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The Prophet (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) were also followed by Buraidah Aslami who was with 70 peoples. But at the end, all of them embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/382)

The news of the Prophet’s Hijrah was spread already in Madinah. The Ansaar were waiting eagerly for him and ready to receive with enthusiasm. Anyway, the Prophet (SAWS) reached the place called Qubaa on Monday, 12th Rabiul Awwal 13th year of Prophethood. He stayed for few days in Qubaa, at the home of Kulthoom bin Hadm and constructed Masjidut Taqwaa. After leading Jumuah Salaah, he (SAWS) left for Madinah. In his Khutbah, he didn’t mention any point about his perpetual enemies and didn’t condemn them; rather he highlighted the topic of Taqwaa and the preparation for the Hereafter. When he reached Madinah, everyone was wishing to make him a guest; but he (SAWS) stayed at the home of Abu Ayyub Ansari (RA) according to the will of Allah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/383-93)

1st Hijrah: After Hijrah reaching in Madinah, the Prophet (SAWS) was interviewed by some Jew scholars. Some prominent Jews and great Jew scholars like, Maimoon bin Yaameen, Abdullah bin Salam, Abul Qeis embraced Islam. Sayyiduna Sarmah bin Abi Anas, a monotheist embraced Islam. The place was bought and the price was paid by Abu Bakr (RA) and Masjide Nabawi was built. The Prophet (SAWS) constructed the homes for Ummahaatul Moomineen. He made Brotherhood between Ansar and Muhajireen because the Muhaajireen had left their homes, properties and relatives in Makkah. To create familiarity among the Ansaar and Muhaajireen, the brotherhood between them was made. 45 Muhaajireen were made brothers of other 45 Ansaar. Ansaar played the role with their Muhajireen brothers was matchless. This relation of brotherhood was so strong that when an Ansari died, his Muhajir brother used to be his inheritor (later it was abrogated.). Adhan was introduced to call the Muslims for Salaah. To protect Muslims from the mischief of Jews, the written treaty was made between Muslims and Jews of Banu Qainqa’a, Bani Nadheer and Bani Qureizah. Battle of Wuddan took place. In brief, the migration marked the beginning of new era in their lives. (Seerate Mustafa 1/396-442)

The Prophet (SAWS) sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Sayyiduna Ubaidah bin Harith (RA) towards Rabigh to follow the caravan of polytheists in Shawwal. He (SAWS) also sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas towards Kharrar. (Seerate Mustafa 2/49)

2nd Hjirah: Before Hijrah, Rasulullah (SAWS) used to offer Salaah in the way that it was easy to face both the Qiblahs: Beitullah nad Beitul Maqdis; but when he (SAWS) migrated to Madinah, it was not possible. So, he faced the Beitul Maqdis in Salaah only as it was impossible to face both the Qiblahs. Following 16-17 months, Allah the Almighty altered the Qiblah from Beitul Maqdis to the Holy Ka’abah permanently as it was also the desire of the Prophet (SAWS). In the last ten days of Sha’baan, the fasting in the month of Ramdhan was made compulsory. In the month of Ramadhan, the rulings regarding the Sadqatul Fitr and Eidu Fitr were revealed. The ruling regarding Eidul Adhhaa and the Sacrifice was revealed. Invoking Durud upon the Prophet (SAWS) was revealed. Zakaah (Alms) was made compulsory. (Seerate Mustafa 1/444-54)

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The Sariyyah was sent under the leadership of Sayyiduna Hamzah (RA) towards Seiful Bahr to follow the Caravan of polytheists coming from Syria under the leadership of Abu Jahl. The Prophet (SAWS) himself participated in the Battle of Abwa/Wuddan. The battles of Buwaat and Oshairah, Badr Sughra, Sariyyah of Abdullah bin Jahash and famous battle of Badr (Badr Kubra) occurred. In Badr Kubra, Muslims got clear victory, 70 enemies were killed and 70 were arrested who were released after paying ransom. The battles of Qainqa’a and Saweeq took place. Siyyadah Fatimah (RA) was married to Sayyiduna Ali (RA). (Seerate Mustafa 2/48-166)

3rd Hijrah: Battles of Ghtfaan, Buhraan took place. Sariyyah of Zaid bin Hartha took place. Because of the attack from the Polytheists of Makkah, the Battle of Uhah took place. The tooth of the Prophet (SAWS) got martyred. Sayyidna Hamzah and Hanzalah along with other 70 sincere Sahabah got martyred. The body of Sayyiduna Hamzah (RA) was mutilated. The Battle of Hamraul Asad occurred. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Hafsah bint Umar (RA). The Prophet’s daughter Ummu Kulthoom (RA) got married with Sayyiduna Uthman (RA). Sayyiduna Ali and Fatimah (RA) were blessed with baby boy, Hasan (RA). Alcohol was made Haraam (Prohibited). (Seerate Mustafa 2/167-246)

4th Hijrah: The Prophet (SAWS) sent different Sariyyah towards several tribes when he (SAWS) came to know their planning to attack. It was Sariyyah of Abu Salmah Abdullah bin Abdul Asad (RA) and Sariyyah Abdullah bin Uneis (RA). The Tragedy of Rajee’ occurred. Actually some people from Adhl and Qaarah came to the Prophet (SAWS) and asked him to send some scholars to teach them Islamic Rulings as they had embraced Islam. The Prophet (SAWS) sent 10 Sahabah under the leadership of Aasim bin Thaabi (RA), but they betrayed and killed 7 of them. Three of them: Abdullah, Zaid and Khubeib (RA) were arrested who were killed latter. Tragedy of Beeru Maunah: On the request and guarantee of Abu Barra, the Prophet (SAWS) sent 70 Sahabah towards Najd to preach Islam under the leadership of Mundhir bin Amr (RA). They stayed at Beer Maunah. On the conspiracy of Aamir bin Tufail, nephew of Abu Barra, the Ra’al, Asiyyah and Dhakwaan tribes killed the Sahabah (RA) except two of them. On this incident and tragedy, the Prophet (SAWS) started reading Qunut Naazilah and cursing those killers. Battles of Bnu Nazeer, Dhaatur Riqaa and Badr Mau’ad took place. Sayyiduna Husain (RA) was born. The Prophet (SAWS) married with Umme Salmah Makhzumiyah (RA) and Zainab bin Khuzaimah (RA). The Prophet (SAWS) ordered Sayyiduna Zaid bin Thaabit to learn Jew’s language, Hebrew. Ruling regarding Hijaab was revealed. (Seerate Mustafa 2/246-67)

5th Hijrah: Battle of Domatul Jandal occurred; because the Prophet (SAWS) came to know that the people of Dumatul Jandal wanted to attack on Madinah, due to that the Prophet (SAWS) went in the company of one thousand Sahabah. As the people of Dumatul Jandal came to know, they ran away. The battle of Bani Mustaliq occurred and the whole tribe of Mustaliq embraced Islam. While returning from the battle, the story forged statement (Slander-Ifk) against Ummul Moomineen Aaisha (RA), fabricated by the hypocrites, took place. The Almighty Allah gave verdict through the holy Qura’an that she was innocent. According to some narrations, the ruling regarding Tayammum was revealed. The battle of trench occurred, because Hai bin Akhtab and Kinanah bin Rabee’ provoked the Qureish and Banu Ghatfa respectively to attack on Madina. About ten thousand people left for Madinah to finish Muslims. When the Prophet (SAWS) came to know it, he called a Meeting of Sahaba, where Sayyiduna Salman Farsi (RA) suggested digging Trench and it was done. This battle continued for 15 days. Three non-Muslims and six Muslims were killed. The battle of Quraizah occurred. On the occasion of the battle of Trench, Banu Quraizah broke the agreement; this was why this battle occurred. The people of Banu Quraizah were detained for 25 days, until they agreed upon to accept any decision of the Prophet (SAWS). He (SAWS) made Sayyiduna Sa’ad bin Mua’ad a judge of this case. He gave verdict to kill the male and to arrest the female. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Zainab bint Jahash (RA). On the occasion of Walimah, the ruling regarding Hijab was revealed. (Seerate Mustafa 2/267-320) A delegation 400 people of Muzainah Tribe came to visit the Prophet (SAWS) and they embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/120)

6th Hijrah: Sariyyah Muhammad bin Maslamah: Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) sent thirty Sahaabah (RA) towards Qurtaa, under the leadership of Sayyiduna Muhammad bin Maslamah. The chief of Banu Hanifah, Thumamah bin Uthaal (RA) was arrested. Latter he was released with the order of the Prophet (SAWS). Following release, he took bath and embraced Islam in Masjid Nabawi. The Battle of Bani Lahyaan: The Prophet (SAWS) wanted to take revenge of the Martyrs of Rajee’, Khubaib, Aasim (RA) etc. but when the Prophet (SAWS) reached, they ran away. He (SAWS) and Sahabah came back after two days, without any fight. The battle of De Qarad (Qarad: Name of a spring in Ghtfaan): Abdur Rahman bin Oyainah, in the company of 40 riders, raided the pasture and confiscated the camels of the Prophet (SAWS) killing the son of Abu Zar (RA), caretaker of the camels. Hence, this battle occurred. The Prophet (SAWS) and the Sahabah followed them. Two of them were killed and remaining ran away. Sariyyah Okashan bin Muhsin, Sariyyah Muhammad bin Maslamah, Sariyyah Abu Obaidah, Sariyyah Jamoom, Sariyyah Aeis, Sariyyah Tarif, Sariyyah Hasma, Sariyyah Waadil Qura, Sariyyah Domatul Jandal, Sariyyah Fidak, Sariyyah Umme Qirfah, Sariyyah Abdullah bin Atik, Sariyyah Abdullah bin Rawaha and Sariyyah Kazr bin Jabir occurred. Umratul Hudaibiyyah and later the treaty of Hudaibiyyah took place. Following the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the Prophet (SAWS) felt ease and started sending the letter to non-Muslim rulers of the world; like Qaisar of Rome through Dahya Kalabi, Kisra of Iran through Abdulllah bin Huzafah Sahmi (RA), As’hamah, the king of Ethiopia (Najashi) through Amr bin Umaiyyah (RA), Muqauqis, the King of Egypt through Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah, Munzir bin Sawaa, the king of Bahrain through Alaa bin Hazrami (RA), (Julandi and his sons,) Jaifar and Abd, Jaifar was the king of Oman, through Amr bin A’as (RA) (8th Hijrah), Hauzah bin Ali, the chief of Yamamah through Saleet bin Amr (RA), Harith Ghassani, the Ameer of Damascus through Shuja’ bin Wahab (RA), wherein he invited them towards Islam. Sayyiduna Ashamah (RA) embraced Islam and died in 9th Hijrah. The Prophet (SAWS) offered his Janazah Salaah. Munzir, the king of Bahrain also embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 2/321-397)

7th Hijrah: Khaibar Victory: With commandment of Allah, the Almighty, the Prophet (SAWS) left for Khaibar in the company of 1,600 Sahabah (RA) against the rebellious Jews who had provoked and supported the Qureish in the battle of Trench. The first and foremost, the Na’aim Fort was conquered. Then Qamoos Fort was conquered at the hands of Ali (RA) following the struggle of 20 days. Then Sa’ab bin Mua’adh fort was conquered. Then Qullah Fort was conquered following the big struggle. At this point, almost all forts were conquered except two forts: Wateeh and Salalim. The fort was being conquered one after another, until the Jews requested to let them go in exile and it was granted. Victory of Fidak: When the dwellers of Fidak learnt about Khaibar’s difficult situation, they also requested to let them go in exile, it was also accepted. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Safiyyah (RA). Zainab bint Harith gifted the Prophet (SAWS) a roasted poisoned goat. The Prophet (SAWS) was informed. He stopped eating and stopped his friends too. On the request from the Jews, latter the deal was made on share-cropping contract on the basis of dividing the yield into halves. Muta’h was prohibited. Some Immigrants to Ethiopia came back the day Khaibar was conquered. Waadi Al-Quraa was conquered after four days detention. The Prophet (SAWS) performed Umrah in the company of 2000 companions. Wedding of the Prophet (SASWS) with Maimunah bint Harith was made. Sariyyah Akram bin Abil Awjaa took place. Polytheists of Makkah broke treaty.
(Seerate Mustafa 2/400-434)

8th Hijrah: Sayyidna Khalid bin Waleed, Uthman bin Talha and Amr bin Aas (RA) embraced Islam. The battle of Mauta: The Prophet (SAWS) sent Haarith bin Umair with a letter to Sharahbeel, the Ameer of Syria. When he had reached in Mauta, a place in Syria, Sharahbeel made him killed. This was why, the Prophet (SAWS) sent three thousand Sahabah. The Sahabah (RA) invited them to Islam firstly, but they didn’t accept Islam until the group of three thousand Muslims started fighting against 2 hundred thousand non-Muslim army. One after another, three Commanders in Chief: Zaid bin Haritha, Jafar bin Abi Talib and Abdullah bin Rawaha, along with other nine Sahabah (RA) got martyred. At the end, the battle was won under the leadership of Khalid bin Waleed (RA) and the warriors were welcomed by the Prophet (SAWS) and other Muslims on return near Madinah. Sariyyah Amr bin Aas: The Prophet (SAWS) came to know that the people of Qadha’ah tribe want attacking Madinah. The Prophet (SAWS), therefore, sent a Sariyyah towards Datus Salaasil. They attacked on Qadha’ah tribe. The people of the tribe ran away and it was won easily. A group of army was sent towards Seiful Bahr to fight against Juhainah tribe under the leadership of Abu Obaidah bin Jarrah. (Seerate Mustafa 2/434-52) The Delegation of Asharee Tribe from Yemen came to visit the Prophet (SAWS) (Seerate Mustafa 3/117-18)

The Conquest of Makkah: In accordance with the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the other tribes had choice to ally with any group. Banu Bakr, therefore, allied itself with the Qureish and Banu Khuza’ah allied itself with the Rasoolullah (SAWS). Once the Banu Nafathah from the Banu Bakr, with the support of the Qureish, attacked on Banu Khuza’ah and killed some people. This was clear breach of the agreement. Then the Prophet (SAWS) sent a message to the Qureish asking them to pay blood-money to Khuza’ah, to separate Banu Nafatha from the agreement or end the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah. They preferred to break the treaty. Hence, the Prophet (SAWS) left for Makkah on 10th Ramadhan, in the company of 10 thousand Sahabah. Before entering Makkah, the Prophet (SAWS) had announced about Makkah people that those who entered in the Holy Ka’abah are safe, those who entered in Abu Sufyan’s home are secured and those who closed the doors of their homes are protected. This news was publicized by Sufyan (RA) in Makkah. The people followed it. Two Muslims got martyred and almost 12/13 polytheists were killed. Makkah was conquered easily. After the victory, Rasulullah (SAWS) entered Majid Haraam and made Tawaaf of Holy Ka’abah. Sayyiduna Abbas and Sayyiduna Abu Sufyan embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/1-34) The Battles of Hunain, Auwtaas and Taaif occurred. Sayyiduna Ibrahim was born to the Prophet (SAWS) and passed away in the same year. (Seerate Mustafa 3/62-74)

9th Hijrah: Sariyyah Oyainah towards Banu Tameem: Rasulullah (SAWS) sent Bashr bin Sufyan (RA) to collect Zakaah (Alms). All the people got ready to pay it, but Banu Tamim refused, rather got ready to fight. On this, Rasulullah (SAWS) sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Oyainah (RA). They raided in the night and 11 men, 21 women and 30 children were arrested. Latter, they embraced Islam and all the arrested people were released. Sariyyah Abdullah bin Awjsah was sent with the letter of the Prophet (SAWS) to invite Bani Amr bin Hartha to Islam, but they refused. Sariyyah Qutbah bin Aamir was sent to Khath’am. The fight took place and the Khath’am was defeated. Sariyyah Zahhak bin Sufyan was sent to invite Banu Kilaab towards Islam. They refused to embrace Islam and started insulting and got ready to fight. When the fight started the Banu Kilaab was defeated. Renowned poet of Arabic language, Ka’ab bin Zuhair (RA), who had run away from Makkah on the Victory day, embraced Islam arriving in Madinah. (Seerate Mustafa 3/79-89)

The Battle of Tabook: Heracles, the King of Rome prepared 40 thousands army and wanted to attack on Madinah. When the Prophet (SAWS) came to know it, he (SAWS) commanded his companions to get ready at once and fight against them at the boarder of Tabook. The economic condition of the Muslims was not good, so the Sahabah started donating whatever they can manage. Uthman (RA) donated 300 camels and one thousand Danaanir. The prophet (SAWS) left for Tabook with Sahabah and Muhammad bin Muslamah (RA) was deputed charge of Madinah. The prophet (SAWS) stayed in Tabook for 20 days; but the fight didn’t take place. Some tribes themselves came and agreed upon paying Jizyah (Tax). Then the Prophet (SAWS) sent 420 Muslims under the leadership of Khalid bin Waleed (RA) towards Akeedar, the ruler of Domatul Jandal from Heracles. He was arrested and brought to Rasulullah (SAWS). A deal was made on paying 2000 camels, 800 horses, 400 armors and 400 spares. Hajj was made Fardh. A good number of people went for Hajj and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was made Ameerul Hajj. The Najashi passed away and his Salatul Janazah was offered by the Prophet (SAWS). Riba (usury) was prohibited. (Seerate Mustafa 3/90-105)

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Thaqeef delegation visited the Prophet (SAWS). (3/110) Those who didn’t accept Islam, Jizyah was imposed on them. Delegation of Bani Hanifah came. Musailam Kazzab was also a member of this delegation. He insisted to be nominated. The Prophet (SAWS) refused and they went back. (3/114-115) When the Prophet (SAWS) came back from Tabook, a delegation of Hamdan from Yemen came to visit the Prophet (SAWS), while already they had accepted Islam at the hands of Sayyiduna Ali (RA) (3/120) A delegation of Christian of Najran from Yemen came to Madinah, but they didn’t accept Islam and got ready to pay Jizyah. (3/121) A delegation of Bani Asad visited the Prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam with the guidance of the Almighty Allah. (3/133) In brief, many delegations, like: delegation Ghudara, delegation of Baliyy and delegation of Bani Murrah etc. visited the prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam (Seerate Mustafa 3/134-35)

10th Hijrah: Several delegations, which started from 8th Hijrah, from different tribes visited the Prophet (SAWS). Amongst them were the delegation of Hawaazin, consisting 14 people, the delegation of Bani Aamir bin Sa’sa’ah and delegation’s two members: Aamir bin Tufail and Arbad bin Qeis talked in very bad manner. They died also in bad manner without embracing Islam, delegation of Abdul Qeis from Bahrain also visited the Prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam, a delegation of Tai arrived and embraced Islam. Delegation of Kindah from Yemen arrived to visit the Prophet (SAWS). A delegation Azad Tribe consisting 15 people came and embraced Islam. The Prophet (SASW) sent Khalid bin Waleed (RA) to Banu Harith, a tribe of Najran to preach Islam. They accepted Islam at once and latter a delegation of the said tribe, in the company of Khalid bin Waleed (RA), came to visit the Prophet (SAWS). A delegation of Bahra’a from Yemen came to Madinah and stayed at the home of Sayyiduna Miqdad (RA) and after learning the Masa’il and rulings of Islam went back. Briefly, many delegations, like: Delegation of Khaulan from Yemen, delegation of Muhaarib, Delegation of Ghassan and the delegation of Salaamaan etc. visited the Prophet (SASWS) and embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/107-137)

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Before Hijrah, the Prophet (SAWS) performed two or so Hajjs. But after Hijrah, the Prophet (SAWS) performed the first and last Hajj in the 10th Hijrah which is called Farewell Hajj (Hajjatul Wada’). He (SAWS) left for Makkah on 25th Dul-Qaadah and reached on 4th Dul-Hijjah. Almost 114,000 people performed Hajj in the company of Rasulullah (SAWS). The Prophet (SAWS) gave his last Sermon, which includes the important issues along with several points protecting the Human Rights.

Few Sentences from his Farewell Hajj’s Sermon: “O people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take interest; therefore, all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all interest due to Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib shall henceforth be waived.” (Seerate Mustafa 3/147-48)

11th Hijrah: The delegation of Nakha’ visited the prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam. (3/140) The Prophet (SAWS) sent the last Sariyyah under the leadership of Usamah bin Zaid towards Romans on Monday, 26th Safar. The Prophet (SAWS) fell sick on Wednesday. On Thursday, he (SAWS) fell seriously sick. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (RA) was selected for leading Salaah. On Monday (12th Rabiul Awwal), the Prophet (SAWS) passed away and was buried in the home of Aaisha (RA) where he (SAWS) passed away. (Seerate Mustafa 3/152-53)

While the Prophet (SAWS) was sick, he came to know that while on the one hand Aswad Anasi, Musailmah Kadhdhaab and Tulaiha Asadi had claimed Prophethood falsely, some Muslims had forsaken Islam on the other. Rasulullah (SAWS), therefore, sent a Sariyyah to follow Aswad Anasi and he was killed just a day before his sad demise. May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him! (Seeratul Mustafa 3/156)

[The writer, Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi, is Head of Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa. He can be reached at Email: qasmikhursheed@yahoo.co.in.]

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